My Research


I am doing a PhD in absorber materials for solar energy. This consists of the spray or sputter deposition of earth abundant elements into a semiconductor material that can convert visible light into usable electricity.


Silicon is market share of modules sold. Thin film semiconductor alloys are seen as disruptive technology? CZTS uses the octet rule to substitute in alternative elements in place of others. This is where I will give a broad overview of the area.

My work

This is where I will give a specific overview of my spraying.

This is where I will hint at materials discovery.


Water based spray pyrolysis of metal-oxide solutions for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells using low toxicity amine/thiol complexants

Cu2ZnSnS(e)4 deposited using solution processes has potential for terrawatt-scale deployment. The champion highest efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 cell published in literature is spin-coated using the highly dangerous hydrazine which is an impractically scalable solvent and deposition combination. As an alternative solvent amine-thiol mixtures have shown to complex with a wide range of binary chalcogenides with much lower health risks than hydrazine. Herein we present two further toxicity reductions, first by employing a less harmful amine-thiol pairing and second by using water as a diluting solvent. We exclude extraneous elements from the precursor solution such as halogens and with a sub-micron thickness crystalline absorber achieve an efficiency of 6.8%. With the modified solution deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, this solution process is scalable, abundant, and relatively non-toxic.